Arne Duncan, the U.S. secretary of education, announced Groff's appointment as the office's Faith-Based and Community Initiatives Center.
The Denver Post reported Thursday that Groff, a Denver Democrat and second-generation lawmaker, had accepted the position.
Groff has long been a champion of education reform, sometimes to the chagrin of teachers' unions.
"Give 'em hell, Peter," said Alex Cranberg, a Republican well known in Colorado's school-choice movement.
Groff's job will be to "help empower faith-based and community groups, enlisting them in support of the department's mission to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence for all Americans," according to the news release.
The position does not require Senate approval.
Groff will resign from the Senate after the session, which must end by May 6. He has served in the legislature since 2001, and is the first black Senate president in Colorado history.