Who is the Colorado Criminal Justice Reform Coalition?

Our mission is to reverse the trend of mass incarceration in Colorado. We are a coalition of nearly 7,000 individual members and over 100 faith and community organizations who have united to stop perpetual prison expansion in Colorado through policy and sentence reform.

Our chief areas of interest include drug policy reform, women in prison, racial injustice, the impact of incarceration on children and families, the problems associated with re-entry and stopping the practice of using private prisons in our state.

If you would like to be involved please go to our website and become a member.

Sunday, November 18, 2007

Women, Stress and Addiction

ScienceDaily (Nov. 10, 2007) — Females seem to be unequally disposed to the harmful effects of stress and to addiction compared with males. Recent studies show that:

  • Estrogen can increase the possibility that females will start to take, and continue taking, cocaine.
  • Females appear to have a genetic predisposition toward reproducing the physiological reward produced by cocaine, suggesting sex chromosomes may influence habit formation.
  • Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may uniquely pass on biological risk factors to their offspring, according to work with the descendents of Holocaust survivors.
  • Stress can damage an area of the brain with a controlling effect on mood.
  • Females without a growth-factor gene can become more depressed than males.

"The comparisons between male and female responses to pain, depression, injury, and addiction are manifold," says Bruce McEwen, PhD, at Rockefeller University in New York City. "Neuroscientific proof of these differences can have profound impacts on everything from over-the-counter pharmaceuticals to government reimbursements for health care."

In three experiments with rats, Jill Becker, PhD, of the University of Michigan, found in each case that females showed an increased vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

In the study, a pool of 150 male and female rats of various predetermined hormone levels (some males were castrated, some females had their ovaries removed) were exposed to various combinations of estrogen, progesterone, or a peanut oil control. The rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine for a three-week period, during which time doses increased every seven days.

Becker found that female rats were more likely to use cocaine when circulating estrogen was high, but also that progesterone could counter the effects of estrogen. Further, she found that the administration of estrogen had no effects on self-administration in male rats.

"The factors that cause some people to try drugs despite all of society's warnings about their dangers are complex, but we know that among the factors are gender, personality type, and prior stress experiences," Becker says. "Women tend to try cocaine earlier in life, susceptible individuals become addicted faster, and, once addicted, they suffer worse damage to their brains, hearts, and livers as a result of their cocaine use, compared with men."

Science Daily

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

通常坊間高 酒店兼職檔西餐廳情人套餐壹客就要花費五 酒店工作、六百元以上,甚至上千元,對於有荷包預算的情侶們無疑是大大的負擔。 酒店上班考量目前低靡景氣,加 寒假打工上今年七夕情人節是在平常日,為刺激買氣高雄麗尊酒店特 暑假打工別推出「經濟型情人自助餐每對990元」,23日前預 酒店PT約且付定金者可免費獲贈「純手工玫瑰巧戒」乙只;現點現做的 禮服酒店香煎美國沙朗牛排吃到飽」更是經濟實惠,僅限於8/26七夕情人節晚餐時 兼差段。七夕情人節還沒想好怎麼過嗎?趕 打工快把握機會!

台北酒店經紀酒店於8/26晚上推出「七夕夜~五星經濟情人 酒店經紀餐優惠專案」,每對只要990元(含一成服務費),此外 酒店打工,凡於8/23日前預約並付訂金者免費 酒店兼差獲贈「純手工玫瑰巧戒」乙只,更為小倆口的戀情喝花酒加溫!值得一提的是,「純手工玫瑰巧戒」交際應酬用比利時產地的白巧克力,經由隔水加熱法融解、降溫再粉味小火加熱等多道繁複製作過程才能完成戒台部份,玫瑰花亦使用白巧克力加上麥芽糖隔水加熱充份混合均勻後再冷卻一夜後方可塑形。


另外,以多國料理聞名的地球村自助餐廳提供多樣化精緻自助吧,無論 酒店是前菜、甜點、湯品、DIY擔仔麵、鮮蔬沙拉、鐵板燒等,提供豐富且多樣的菜式,讓喜愛自由用餐、歡樂氛圍的情侶們可以輕鬆大啖美食,不用擔心荷包大失血的顧慮。